Are we too easily persuaded? How can we defend ourselves from clever marketing? What does it mean to think critically?
- Recognize the manipulation of our emotions;
- (Aristotle, the master of rhetoric, called this pathos.)
- Avoid logical fallacies (false logic) ;
- Examine the reasonableness of our inferences;
- (Aristotle called this logos–evaluating the logic of an argument by examining deductive and inductive reasoning.)
- Evaluate the issues from various viewpoints and perspectives;
- Consider alternate interpretations;
- Explore a new theory, model, or pattern that might offer a better way to explain the outcome from the evidence;
- Wonder at the validity of our priorities;
- Learn about an unpopular viewpoint to avoid “jumping on the bandwagon” of popular opinion;
- Detail ethic considerations;
- (Aristotle’s ethos); and
- Ask the right questions to make an informed decision.
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